„Zwischen Tripolje, Kaukasus und Ost-Anatolien: Das Spätneolithikum der nordpontischen Steppe im Licht der chronologischen Probleme (2.Hälfte des 4.Jt.v.Chr.-Anfang des 3.Jt.v. Chr.)“
The studying of archaeological sources of the Eneolithic is showing us that the development of the first pastoral societies in the Black Sea steppe has been connected to the dynamics of development of the neighbouring agricultural societies – the Cucuteni-Trypillya culture in the Ukrainian forest-steppe and the Darkvelo-Meshoko culture (according to Трифонов, 2001), and later – the Maykop-Novosvobodnaya unity (according to Кореневский, 2001) on the Western and Northern Caucasus. The sources testify that general stability of these societies first of all the Cucuteni-Trypillya provided also stability of development of their steppe neighbours. On the other hand it were those agricultural cultures which allow us to study the early pastoral cultures of the Pontic steppe area in the Circumpontic context.
In the Late Trypillya period (C/1 and C/2) (3800/3700 – 3500/3400 – 3000/2900 – 2750 ? ВС) we can observe an intensification of influences of the agricultural societies in the steppe zone. Especially these influences have amplified during the period of the Trypillya С/2. The burials of the Zhivotylivka-Vovchans’k type in the steppe area reflect this process. The archaeological artefacts of the Trypillya culture and Maykop-Novosvobodnaya unity and their imitations are presented in these burials. Some type of the Maykop-Novosvobodnaya ceramics have the Late Uruk influences in opinion of researchers.
The main problem consists in a search of chronological parity between Late Trypillya (С/1 and С/2), steppe monuments, Maykop-Novosvobodnaya unity and Uruk periods. According to radiocarbon dates the Maykop-Novosvobodnaya unity corresponds in part Early, completely the Middle and partly the Late Uruk (Arslantepe VII and in part VI-A) and Trypillya С/1. But archaeological sources of the steppe zone in particular the Zhivotylivka-Vovchans’k complexes concern to period of the Trypillya С/2 which corresponds ArslantepeVI-A and partly VI-B (Late Uruk and Jemdet Nasr, maybe beginning of the Early Dynastic Period).
Therefore there are problems of the coordination of the radiocarbon dates and the archaeological relative chronology. The decision of this problem is very important for the investigation of the character of the influences of the two agricultural societies on the formation of early pastoral cultures in the Black Sea steppe.